Fever in children
Fever is any increase in body temperature above the normal range, i.e. any temperature over 37.5 °C taken axillary (under the armpit). Fever is a natural defence mechanism that is activated as a response to certain inflammations or diseases of the organism.
How to take a child’s temperature?
Today, digital thermometers are normally used to take a person’s temperature (rectal, axillary, oral or tympanic – in the ear), while the use of mercury-in-glass thermometers is discouraged. Each temperature-taking method can give reliable results, but numerous parameters should be taken into account. For example, normal temperature range varies from child to child, while results also depend on when and where the temperature is being taken. Studies have shown that body temperature is at its lowest around 4 a.m. and at its highest around 5 p.m. The normal upper range is highest if temperature is taken rectally, it is lower by 0.5 °C when taken under the tongue, whereas it is lowest when taken under the armpit.
When to apply measures to reduce fever?
As already mentioned, fever is the body’s natural defence mechanism, so it is not advisable to reduce it at low-grade levels, except in exceptional circumstances. Although it is generally recommended to start reducing fever at 38 °C (axillary temperature), there are no set rules that stipulate when you should start reducing it. Since fever is the most common sign of acute infection, it is necessary to monitor other symptoms and signs in children: lethargy, mood swings, irritability, refusal to eat or drink, and general complexion. Special caution is required in children up to five years of age due to increased risk of febrile convulsions (seizures caused by sudden rise in body temperature).
How to reduce fever in children?
Pharmacological methods include the use of paracetamol, which is considered standard treatment, and ibuprofen, which is considered second-line treatment. Medicines for children are most often administered in the form of suppositories or syrups, while the recommended dose depends on the child’s weight (calculated as described in the package leaflet). In addition, the interval between two administered doses should be taken into account. Medicines that contain acetylsalicylic acid as the active substance should be avoided due to side effects that could be harmful to the child’s safety.
In addition to pharmacological methods, there are also non-pharmacological methods to reduce fever, which can be extremely effective: they include showering, bathing and/or applying a compress soaked in lukewarm (never cold!) water. Alcohol must not be used for this purpose, as the child may be poisoned by alcohol vapours, but also due to the possible drying of the skin and narrowing of blood vessels. The room where the child is staying should be cooled to 22 °C, and the child should be dressed in clothes made of soft and breathable natural materials (such as cotton).
Studies have shown that the most effective method of reducing fever is a combination of the described pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods. In case of prolonged or extremely high fever, and in case of serious accompanying symptoms, it is best to seek professional medical help and continue treatment according to the doctor’s instructions.
Like all medicines, fever-reducing medicines can cause adverse reactions, i.e. side effects. Monitoring of adverse reactions is exactly what Marti Farm does, with a focus on reducing potential risks that could harm patients. The pharmacovigilance department in Marti Farm is staffed by highly educated and professional employees with many years of experience who offer fast and efficient solutions for individual client needs (in accordance with applicable regulations).
Moreover, Marti Farm has successfully developed Sympto®, an excellent tool for both basic and advanced pharmacovigilance requirements. Sympto® is a multi-client pharmacovigilance solution designed to minimise risk and facilitate the detection of possible signals. If you want to set up and maintain a pharmacovigilance system that complies with applicable regulations, or if you would like to facilitate the implementation of day-to-day pharmacovigilance requirements using Sympto®, connect with us.
Ena Bulović, MPharm / Senior Pharmacovigilance Associate
Lašćinska cesta 40
Planinska ulica 13/2
Office: +385 1 5588 297
Pharmacovigilance: +385 1 5588 297
Clinical trials: +385 1 5614 330
Registration: +385 1 242 0873
Marketing: +385 1 2420 890
Fax: +385 1 2420 860
Tel: +385 1 5588 297
Full company name
Short company name
Marti Farm Ltd. Trade and Services
Marti Farm Ltd.
Lašćinska cesta 40, HR-10000 Zagreb
Planinska ulica 13/2, HR-10000 Zagreb
a limited liability company
Commercial Court of Zagreb
HRK 20,000.00 (paid in its entirety)
Martina Diminić Smetiško, director of the
company (Representing the company
individually and independently, Responsible
person for data protection)
HR3623600001102197724 (Zagrebačka banka)
HR4324020061100628669 (Erste banka)
Full company name: Marti Farm Ltd. Trade and Services
Short company name: Marti Farm Ltd.
Headquarters: Lašćinska cesta 40, HR-10000 Zagreb
Office: Planinska ulica 13/2, HR-10000 Zagreb
Legal form: a limited liability company
Court register: Commercial Court of Zagreb
Registration number: 080751121
Share capital: HRK 20,000.00 (paid in its entirety)
Authorized representative: Martina Diminić Smetiško, director of the company (Representing the company individually and independently, Responsible person for data protection)
Bank account: HR3623600001102197724 (Zagrebačka banka), HR4324020061100628669 (Erste banka)